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LIST OF MASSACRES DURING THE GREEK GENOCIDE IN TURKEY

Interactive Google map of massacres compiled by the Greek Genocide Resource Center. Zoom in or out. Click on individual location to read details. List appears below in chronological order.  Note: This is a work in progress and more massacres will be added as they are documented.

The Greek Genocide involved the persecution of native Greeks living in the Ottoman Empire. While deportation to the arid interior of Turkey was the more effective way to liquidate Greek communities en masse, small and large-scale massacres were also committed. Below is a list of known massacres perpetrated during the Greek Genocide.

The list was compiled by the Greek Genocide Resource Center and is not complete. While the list represents a substantial portion of the massacres perpetrated, the project is ongoing and more massacres will be added as they are documented.  

A massacre is generally considered as being an indiscriminate and brutal killing of many people. In order to better define the term ‘many people’ we have chosen 20 as being the minimum number of people killed in order for a mass killing to qualify as a massacre, unless the massacre involved children, notables, wealthy citizens or religious clergy.  

Source: www.greek-genocide.net

LIST OF MASSACRES 

1912

Aivali

November: The Ottoman Army massacred 167 Christian men, women and children at the Greek village Aivali (near Lüleburgaz) and raped girls and women.

Sources: Turkish Atrocities. (1912, November 2). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 – 1954), p. 17. Retrieved March 26, 2018, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15372233 

– Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. p 25.

Mitylene 

December: Turks massacred the Christians of Mitylene. 

Source: MASSACRE ON MITYLENE. (1912, December 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 – 1954), p. 19. Retrieved December 22, 2018, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15384843

Keşan

300 Greeks massacred

Source: Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. p 25.

1913

Kumburgaz

January: A Turkish fleet with 500 troops lands at Kumburgaz (Gr: Economio) and orders all young men over the age of 15 years to the sea-shore. 140 males comply and are massacred. Parish priest Neofytos is burnt alive. 

Source: Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. Constantinople, 1919. The Hesperia Press, p. 30.

Kircasalih 

Kircasalih (Mega Zaloufi): 130 inhabitants killed when Ottoman forces reoccupied the town.  

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p.13. 

Kastellorizo

April: Turks from Asia Minor landed on the island which was mainly inhabited by Greeks,  massacring Christians and violating women. 

Source: CHRISTIANS MASSACRED. (1913, April 14). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 – 1931), p. 8. Retrieved December 22, 2018, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article117929379

Tekirdağ  

July: The Ottoman Army killed 39 Greeks after reoccupying the town. 

Source: Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. p 60.

Gönence

July: The Ottoman Army entered Gönence (Gr: Kalyvia) and looted all the houses and killed all the Christians they met. The village and neighborhood was full of corpses of men, women and children.

Source: ALLEGED TURKISH ATROCITIES. (1913, September 13). The Express and Telegraph (Adelaide, SA : 1867 – 1922), p. 6. Retrieved November 28, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article21011262

Malkara

July: Turkish soldiers massacre 300 Greeks at a rich monastery. Eighteen Greek villages also wiped out.

Source: Turks Massacre Greeks in Thrace. The New York Times, 28 July 1913, p. 3.

Hasköy

July: The Ottoman Army entered the village on the 4th of July and began firing at men, women and children kiling a large number. Women were raped. The whole village was then burned.

Source: Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp39-40.

Hemit

July: Ottoman soldiers entered Hemit (Gr: Thymitkioi) on the 4th of July. The church was stripped and burned. All houses were looted and many were massacred. Women were raped. The village was burnt to ashes.

Source: Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp40-41.

Hayrabolu

July: Ottoman soldiers entered Hayrabolu (Gr: Charioupolis) and gathered all the women and girls from 8 through to 75 years of age then raped and tortured them. Some were mutilated and had their limbs and parts of their bodies cut off.   Men were also tortured to death and others massacred. Hayrabolu (Gr: Charioupolis).

Source: Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp 45-47.

Kürtüllü

July: The Ottoman Army entered Kürtüllü (Gr: Kiourtli) on the 4th of July and for 2 days began to plunder, beat and murder the residents. They burned most of the houses and partly burned the church. Turks from the region entered and took everything including furniture, cattle and food.

Source: Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. p 41.

Bayramtepe

July: The Army entered Bayramtepe (Gr: Temberikioi) on the 4th of July and burned the church and 30 houses. They then looted and massacred many of its inhabitants.

Source: Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. p 41.

1914

Seyrek  

May: The village, located in the district of Menemen, was besieged by thousands of armed Turks before it was set fire to and its inhabitants massacred. Women and children were literally butchered.  

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. pp. 79-80. 

Didymoteicho  

May: Massacre of women and children. Those trying to escape the massacre crossed the Maritsa (Meriç) River and drowned after being shot at. 

Source: SLAUGHTER OF GREEKS. (1914, May 19). The Bendigo Independent (Vic. : 1891 – 1918), p. 5. 

Yenice

May: Greeks from the village Yenice (Gr: Intzekioi) were driven out to the mountains where many were later found slain.

Source: Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp 108-109.  

Ormanlı

May: Greeks from the village Ormanlı (Gr: Kastampoli) were driven out to the mountains where many were later found slain.

Source: Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp 108-109.  

Ulucak

June: Two sargeants and 15-20 bandits invaded the town and looted and ransacked homes.  Corpses of humans were found in the plains surrounding Ulucak. 
 
Source: Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919. pp 127-128.  

Foça  

June: Armed irregulars stormed the town of Foça (Gr: Phocaea). With the assistance of Ottoman officials approximately 100 Greeks including priests and children were massacred. The town was then looted. The remainder fled. 

Sources: GREEKS MASSACRED (1914, June 17). The Journal (Adelaide, SA : 1912 – 1923), p. 1 (4 P.M. EDITION). Retrieved November 4, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article204671244 

– Bjørnlund, M. Cited from The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks. Aristide Caratzas, 2012, pp153-154. 

Uzunada  

July: Turkish regular troups drive 16 Greeks to the town square where they are butchered. Two girls (14 and 17 y.o)  successively violated by 25 soldiers). 

Sources: GREEKS MASSACRED. (1914, July 22). The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 – 1947), p. 6. Retrieved September 6, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article175971928  

-Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p 86. 

Erzurum  

December: Greeks and Armenians hanged without trial. Their corpses suspended from lamp posts for weeks. Turks passing by spat on their bodies and compelled the Christians to do likewise.  

Source: POSITION IN ERZERUM: Armenians and Greeks Hanged by the Turks. (1914, December 15). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate (NSW : 1876 – 1954), p. 5. Retrieved February 16, 2018, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article137430483

Ayvalik  

December: Greeks massacred at Ayvalik. Houses pillaged and shops burned. 

Source: GREEKS MASSACRED BY TURKS. The Washington Herald. (Washington, D.C.), 17 Dec. 1914, p. 1. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045433/1914-12-17/ed-1/seq-1/>

1915

Burhaniye 

March: 60 Christian families massacred at Burhaniye (Gr: Kemeri).  

Source: MASSACRES BY TURKS AROUSE GREEKS’ FURY. The Daytona daily news. (Daytona, Fla.), 15 March 1915, p. 1. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93063916/1915-03-15/ed-1/seq-1/> 

Ayvalik 

March: Massacre of 40 Greeks. 

Source: MASSACRES BY TURKS AROUSE GREEKS’ FURY. The Daytona Daily News. (Daytona, Fla.), 15 March 1915, p. 1. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93063916/1915-03-15/ed-1/seq-1/> 

Gümüshane 

April: 4,000 Greeks from the region escaped from Turkish military authorities and sought refuge in the forests of Gümüshane . Hard pressed by hunger, some managed to flee towards Russia while the remainder were caught, tortured then massacred, their bodies thrown into the Pyxites River.  

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p109.  

Bodrum  

June:  18 inhabitants and one girl aged 16 slaughtered. 

Source: Carroll N. Brown Ph.D and Theodore P. Ion D.C.L. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey Since the Beginning of the European War.Oxford University Press, 1918, p.30. 

Kiosteniou  

July: 18 Greeks butchered at Kiosteniou. 

Source: Carroll N. Brown Ph.D and Theodore P. Ion D.C.L. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey Since the Beginning of the European War. Oxford University Press, 1918, p.33. 

İzmit  

September: Turks set fire to İzmit and conduct a general massacre of the population. 

Source: TURKISH MASSACRE. (1915, September 6). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), p. 7. Retrieved October 25, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article20089650  

Gölcük  

November: The village was surrounded by soldiers and gendarmes who opened fire causing villagers to flee to the mountains. They then set fire to the village. As villagers fled in terror, 30 were shot and killed at point blank range. 

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p.40. 

1916

Edirne  
April: Massacre of 400 Greeks. 

Source: GREEK MASSACRES. (1916, April 27). The Evening Telegraph (Charters Towers, Qld. : 1901 – 1921), p. 5. Retrieved October 25, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article212815360 

İzmir  
April: Massacre of 200 Greeks in the İzmir (Gr: Smyrna) district. 

Source: MASSACRE OF GREEKS. (1916, April 22). Daily Telegraph (Launceston, Tas. : 1883 – 1928), p. 7. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article152760190  

Maçka  
April: The Vazelon Monastery in Maçka was the sight of a massacre of 487 people, mostly women and children who had been hiding in the forest. They were captured, violated within the monastery, and then massacred. Men were also murdered. The church was then burnt and destroyed, its furniture carried away, its bibles and archives burnt to cinders. 

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 111. 

Trabzon  
April: Hundreds of Greeks and Armenians massacred in the Christian quarter of Trabzon. 

Source: MASSACRE OF CHRISTIANS BEFORE EVACUATION OF TREBIZOND (1916, April 21). Daily Herald (Adelaide, SA : 1910 – 1924), p. 5. Retrieved November 3, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article124874666  

1917

Ordu

August: Women, children and elderly men were towed several miles out to sea and dumped overboard. None survived. 

Source: 1.000.000 GREEKS KILLED: The New York Times. Jan 1, 1918. Retrieved February 17, 2018, from http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9F01E7DE133FE433A25752C0A9679C946996D6CF&legacy=tru

Bafra  
October: After distributing arms to Turkish peasants, Greeks, including children were massacred. 

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 124. 

1918

Kars

April: The Ottoman Army advancing in the Caucasus conducted wholesale massacres of Greeks, Armenians and American missionaries.

Source: MASSACRES BY TURKS. (1918, April 30). Hamilton Spectator (Vic: 1870-1918), p. 4. Retrieved February 16, 2018, 
from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article119501423

Rize  
Turkish bands attacked Rize and massacred some of the population. Schools, churches and houses were plundered and demolished. Residents were compelled to emigrate to Russia. Out of 2,000 people only 4 remained.    

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 113. 

1919

Buca  
March: Reports of many murders and robberies by bands of Turks against Greeks in the region. The bodies of 50 Greeks found decapitated and partially burned. 

Source: Great Unrest Reported Over Disposition of Smyrna Region, The New York Times, 21 March 1919. Web. <http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9F0DE3DC1331E433A25752C2A9659C946896D6CF>  

Nazilli  
June: Massacre of several Greek families. 

SourceDocuments of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.10. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf> 

Atça  
June: 47 Greeks massacred and the priest burned alive. 

SourceDocuments of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.22. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf> 

Köşk  
June: 47 people massacred in Köşk, including a doctor and the priest, who was first blinded and had his nose and ears cut off. 

SourceDocuments of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.22. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf> 

Umurlu  

June: More than 90 Greeks massacred at Umurlu and 70 bodies found. 

SourceDocuments of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.22. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf> 

Karapelit  

June: All the young children of the village were taken to a place close to the Black Sea near the village Hocaali. They were then placed in a circle and shot while musical instruments were played loudly.  

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.293.  

Aydin  
June: Massacre of approx. 1,500-2,000 Greeks by Kemalist forces in June 1919. Hundreds of bodies found burnt alive, some after having been raped, and bodies found thrown into wells. 

SourceDocuments of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. Document 3, No 33, p.12. Web. 20/07/2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf> 

Çantaköy 

August: Turkish gendarmes and bandits surround Greek town of Çantaköy (Gr: Tsento) and massacre Greeks.  

Source: Turks Massacre Greeks, Alexandria Gazette, 12 Aug 1919, p.3.   

Manisa  

c1919: 115 Greeks massacred by Turkish gangs in the Manisa region. 

SourceDocuments of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.24. Web. 24 Oct. 2017.  <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf> 

Alaşehir  

c1919: 47 murders reported in Alaşehir and neighboring regions. 

SourceDocuments of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.26. Web. 24 Oct. 2017.  <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf> 

Halitpaşa  

Mass slaughter of Greeks at Halitpaşa (Gr: Papazli). 

SourceDocuments of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.24. Web. 24 Oct. 2017.  <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf> 

Ilgin  

7-8 wealthy elected Greek notables were hanged by Turkish authorities.   

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.363. 

Kaklik  

Summer: 15 wealthy Greek men from Honaz are shot at the gorge of Kaklik deresi and their valuables taken.  

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.417.  

Yenipazar  

70 Greeks massacred and thrown in the Meander river.  

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.177. 

Ankara 

Late 1919 or 1920: Notables and elders taken to a nearby location and massacred.   

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.377. 

1920

Emirdağ  

c1920: 50 Greeks found massacred. 

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.395.  

Tekirdağ  

March: Large number of Greeks massacred at Tekirdağ. 

Source: Report Turks Killed Many at Rodosto, The New York Times, 4 March 1920. Web. <http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9F0CE0DA103BEE32A25757C0A9659C946195D6CF> 

Sarköy  

March: Massacre of Greeks and Armenians at Sarköy (or Şar, also spelt Shahr). 

Source: Yeghiayan, V.  British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.139. 

Karakavuz 

May: The Greek village was surrounded, plundered and all inhabitants massacred except very few. 

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople Press of the Patriarchate, 1920, p.142.  

Findikli  

June: Kemalists surrounded the four Greek villages of Findikli (Gr: Foundouklia). The men were shut up in a church and ordered to come out in fives and were shot. Of the population of 3,400, 400 men and 30 women were massacred.  

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.167. 

 -Faltaits, K.  The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia(Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921. Cosmos 2016, pp. 71-74.  

Fulacik  

June: Nationalist Kemalist forces accompanied by the gendarmerie entered the village and proceeded to loot and burn houses and massacre its inhabitants. Three hundred men including boys as young as 14 were locked in the village church before it was doused with petrol and set alight.  

Source: Faltaits, K. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia(Izmit) Massacres of 1902-1921. Cosmos 2016, pp. 43-51. 

Mersin  

Around June: Greeks and Armenians living in the districts near Mersin were massacred.  

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.152. 

Yukariyapici  

June: 22 Greek men massacred at Yukariyapici (Ano Neochori). 

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople Press of the Patriarchate 1920, p.116. 

Nazilli  

June: Approximately 162 Greeks were either massacred or burned to death in their homes when Kemalist soldiers and the gendarmerie (police) put fire to the Greek quarter of Nazilli. 

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate. The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople Press of the Patriarchate 1920, p.103. 

Erbaa  

June: Vast massacre of the Greek male population of Erbaa under the command of Kemalist Military Commander Topal Osman. All men aged between 15-70 years were gathered at the home of notable Greek Anastas efendi, or the Armenian church, and were executed. Bodies were disposed of in the forest. Only those hiding in the mountains escaped the massacre.  

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Central Regions of Pontus. Volume C. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2013. In Greek. p.194, 196 and 206.  

Geyve  

July: Kemalist Nationalist forces massacre hundreds of Greeks and Armenians at Geyve.  

Source: TURKISH ATROCITIES. (1920, July 31). The Maitland Daily Mercury (NSW : 1894 – 1939), p. 5. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article127337896  

Simav 

July: Kemalist forces enter Simav and 15 Greek notables are massacred. 240 inhabitants then deported to Kütahya, but 5 minutes from Simav all were massacred except 25 who managed to escape. 

Sources: – Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople Press of the Patriarchate, 1920, p.111-112.  

– The Exodus: Testimonies from the regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor, Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek, p.421. 

Yozgat 

July: Kemalist forces massacred 60 Greeks and 20 Armenians at Yozgat. Some were crucified. 

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.161. 

Sernits  

Summer: 18 Greek men massacred.  

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Central Regions of Pontus. Volume C. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2013. In Greek. p.151. 

İznik  

August: Turkish irregulars massacred approx. 600 Greeks of İznik (Gr: Nicaea). Their slaughtered bodies were later found burnt out in a cave just outside the town. The town’s church was also destroyed, not before women were raped on the altar.   

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.172. 

Osmaneli  

August: Wholesale massacre. Out of 800 Greeks very few survived. 

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.299.   

Bolu  

August: Kurds surround the Armenian quarter where there were 20 Greek families. They pillaged the houses, then shut the men up in the Armenian church, killed the women and then set fire to the church and the whole town. Very few survived. 80 Greeks were massacred. 

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.167. 

Oçoglu  

September: Kemalist army entered Oçoglu near Yozgat and gathered all villagers into the church. They then raped all women and girls in the presence of their fathers, husbands and brothers and massacred all of them, 280 in number.  

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople Press of the Patriarchate, 1920, p.75.  

Geyve  

October: About 30 Christians, mostly Greeks massacred by Nationalists. 

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.175. 

Saraçli  

At Saraçli (Gr: Houdi) women and girls were locked in a church where those who weren’t killed were raped. Women and children were tied up and shot. Men were massacred en masse.  

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.327.  

Ortaköy  

The town of some 10,000 Greeks was completely burnt to the ground in 1920. The majority of the 10,000 Greeks were massacred. Atrocities included rape, be-headings as well as massacre via the use of knives and hatchets. 

Source: Faltaits, K. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia(Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921. Cosmos 2016, pp. 91-98. 

Vezirköprü  

October: Burning of villages and massacre of inhabitants. 

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.179. 

Hacibey  

c1920: Wholesale massacre under the command of Kemalist Military Commander Topal Osman. Adults were locked up in barns churches and schools and burned alive. Children were unclothed then thrown in wells and rocks thrown over them. Women were taken to a cliff overlooking a river, were undressed then with knives, axes and bullets attacked and thrown into the river. 

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Central Regions of Pontus. Volume C. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2013. In Greek. p.221.  

Toraman  

c1920-1921: 32 Greek men including a priest, from nearby Upper Ovacik and Kavuklu were burned by Kemalist regulars. 

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.273.  

1921

Kontzes  

February: Attacked by nationalist Kemalist forces under the command of Cemal (Djemal) of Iznik. Inhabitants slaughtered while homes were burnt to the ground. 

Source: K. Faltaits. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia (Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921.Cosmos 2016, pp.75-80. 

Kayseri  

March: Kemalist forces commit 3 day massacre of Christians. 

Source: TERRIBLE MASSACRES (1921, March 22). The Bathurst Times (NSW : 1909 – 1925), p. 2. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article111536870  

Niksar  

May: Massacre of Greeks at Niksar under the command of Kemalist Military Commander Topal Osman.  

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Central Regions of Pontus. Volume C. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2013. In Greek. p.272, 274, 289.  

Alaçam  

May: The Turks imprisoned the Christian male population above the age of 12 then massacred them. 

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.236. 

Samsun  

June: Massacres reported at Samsun where the streets are strewn with bodies of Greeks.  

Source: GREEKS AND TURKS. (1921, June 6). Tweed Daily (Murwillumbah, NSW : 1914 – 1949), p. 3. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article190908100 

Merzifon  

July: The Mayor of Giresun, the notorious Topal Osman, and his band of ‘cut-throats’ entered Merzifon and massacred approximately 1,000 Greeks and Armenians in a massacre that lasted 4 days. The bodies were later dumped and buried in pits in the Christian cemetery.  

Source: Shenk, R. America’s Black Sea Fleet. Naval Institute Press 2012, pp. 103-105.   

Adaköy  

July: Men, women and children were herded into houses which were then set on fire. All those who escaped were shot. 600 massacred. 

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.211-212. 

Samsun  

July: One village burned by Nationalists and 82 bodies of men, women and children found floating in the Kizil Irmak River. 

Source: Turks Massacre 82 Greeks, New Mexico state record. (Santa Fe, N.M.), 22 July 1921. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93061701/1921-07-22/ed-1/seq-2/> 

Kartepe  

The town was first looted on the 15th of May 1920, but on the 25th of March 1921, Kemalist forces returned and continued the looting and massacred the population. 

Source: Faltaits, K. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia(Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921.Cosmos 2016, pp. 65-69. 

Kavak  

August: 1,300 Greeks shot in two and a half hours at Kavak.   

Source: Rendel, W. British Documents on Foreign Affairs: Reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print. Part II, Series B, Volume 3. University Publications of America, 1985, p.85. 

Çakalli  

c1921: Women and children locked up in houses of the village and  burnt alive. 

Source: Central Council of Pontus. Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus. Athens 1922. p.20. 

Kocadağ 

August: Kemalists set fire to Greek villages. Nearly 3,000 inhabitants burned alive in flaming houses they were prevented from escaping. 

Source: TURKS MASSACRE CHRISTIANS. (1921, August 27). The Maitland Weekly Mercury (NSW : 1894 – 1931), p. 13. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article127128042  

Bafra  

August: Massacre of 2,000 within 8 days. 

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.222.  

Kurtsuyu  

September: Kurtuyu and neighbouring Christian villages pillaged then burned. Many old men and women burnt alive.  

Source: Yeghiayan, V.  British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.227.  

Samsun  

September: Turks kill 466 Greek refugees who were in a convoy that was destined for the coast. 

Source: TURKS MASSACRE REFUGEES. (1921, September 8). Recorder (Port Pirie, SA : 1919 – 1954), p. 3. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article95377253   

Bafra  

October: Greek villages burnt, men massacred, men and women deported in Bafra district.  

Source: GREEKS MASSACRED. (1921, October 19). Daily Standard (Brisbane, Qld. : 1912 – 1936), p. 4 (SECOND EDITION). Retrieved October 24, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article184952873  

Samsun  

November: 300 Greeks massacred at Samsun. 

Source: MASSACRE OF GREEKS. (1921, November 26). Daily Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1915 – 1954), p. 5. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article195339049  

1922

Samsun  

April: Massacre of Christians at Samsun. Nationalists surrounded and set fire to the Greek quarters, shooting at those who fled.  

Source: Massacre of Greeks by Turks, The Maui news. (Wailuku, Maui, H.I.), 18 April 1922. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82014689/1922-04-18/ed-1/seq-1/>   

Kavak  

June: 1,300 Christian women and children taken to the interior of Turkey and all massacred. 

Source: MASSACRE OF CHILDREN (1922, June 15). Daily Telegraph (Launceston, Tas. : 1883 – 1928), p. 5. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article153325764  

Akçay  

August/September: Greeks from Edremit who were waiting at Akçay for transport out of Turkey were taken to a gorge near Araplar and killed. 

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek., p.229. 

İzmir  

On the 13th of September 1922, nationalist Kemalist forces entered the city, set fire to it, and proceeded to massacre its Greek and Armenian population. Estimates range from 10,000 to 100,000 killed. 

Sources: Numerous accounts and news reports.  

Çakallar  

September:  600 mine workers from the nearby Balya mines are slaughtered with the strike of a bayonet beside trenches that were prepared the day prior. The corpses were then set on fire and Kemalist soldiers remained at the scene for 2 or 3 days until they were completely burned. 

Source: Puaux, René. Les derniers jours de Smyrne. Paris 1923, pp.43-44. 

Urla  

September: A wholesale massacre of Greeks. Females raped and abducted.  

Source: Puaux, René. Les derniers jours de Smyrne. Paris 1923, pp.35-41.

Güre  

September: Massacre of Greeks who were awaiting for ships to exit Turkey.  

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.236. 

Dereköy  

September: Massacre of Greeks who were ordered to a gorge at nearby Havran and were all shot.   

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.238. 

Çoruk  

September: All 200 residents were massacred. The villagers were taken to a place called Valanithia just past Frengioy where they were all shot.  

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.245. 

Biga  

September: A wholesale massacre of Greeks at nearby Yenice (or Intzekioy) that started one evening and ended the following morning.   

Source:The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.257. 

Havran  

September: Sizeable number of Greeks from Havran (Grk: Freneli) escaped to nearby Akçay, near Edremit (see Akçay 1922) where a large proportion of them were killed en masse. 

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.247.  

Balikesir  

September: Wholesale massacre of Greeks. Hundreds of girls abducted.  

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.263.  

Elpizli  

September: Massacre of Greeks. 

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. P.338. 

Note: No longer on current map. Location approximate and based on available information. 

Bahçecik  

September: 105 Greek males from Şile were marched to a Turkish village just outside of Bahçecik where they were to be slaughtered but locals complained. They were taken to a nearby field, unclothed and slaughtered with knives. One male survived. 

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.344. 

Pınarbaşı  

September: Massacre of Greeks.  

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.25. 

Çesme  

September: Greeks who were unable to flee in time on vessels were massacred. 

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.70. 

Yağcılar  

September: Massacre of Greeks. The perpetrators were Turks from the neighboring Turkish villages of Kuskular and Salaptalar. 

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.71. 

Alibey Adasi  

September: Wholesale massacre of Greeks just outside of town. Many men and women executed by gunshot.  

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.96,100.  

Bergama  

September: Massacre of 800 Greeks at Agia Kastriani, Teke-Bugaz, Sayindere, Ay Yianni, Kayiatzikia and Yigma-Tepe.  

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.140.  

Bademli  

September: Over 100 Greeks massacred. 

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.142. 

Çandarli  

September: Massacre of Greeks. 

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.143. 

Kavuklu  

A massacre of Greeks. 

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.271.  

Dikili  

September: Wholesale massacre of Greeks along the shores of Dikili. The massacre was so violent the shoreline was strewn with the blood and bones of the massacred victims. 

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.145. 

Akhisar 

September: Wholesale massacre of men, women and children. The women and children were massacred with machine guns in a nearby ravine under the eyes of the local Muslim population who arrived to watch the spectacle from surrounding heights. 

Source: Puaux, René. Les derniers jours de Smyrne. Paris 1923, p.45.  

Balikesir Province  

September: Upon the arrival of a division of the Kemalist regular army under the command of Kiarim Bey, the Christians  of Balya Maden and Balikesir were assembled on the 18th of September to be deported to Ankara. Instead they were massacred somewhere between Balya Maden and Karaağaç. Wells and ditches were opened and corpses were thrown in and burned. The victims amounted to several thousand.  

Source: Puaux, René. Les derniers jours de Smyrne. Paris 1923, pp.41-42. 

Ezine  

October: A telegram from Çanakkale reported a general massacre of Greeks at Ezine. 

Source: GREEKS SPEEDING UP REMOVAL OF REFUGEES (1922, October 16). Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW : 1888 – 1954), p. 1. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article45586377 

Urum Çiftlik  

November: Massacre of 13 Greeks.  

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.531.  

Note: This is the approximate location based on available information.  

Bereketli Maden  

November: 35 men including three 13 year old children were taken to a place near Yelatan and massacred.  Around the same time, 100 carpenters from Bereketli Maden were also massacred in various places further south in the Cilicia region. 

SourceThe Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.268.  

1923

Gürümze  

Massacre of 125 Greeks. Residents were ordered to gather outside the town’s church where they were ordered to hand over their valuables. They were then locked inside the church which was then torched. Some were slaughtered with a scimitar. Among the dead were 3 priests. 

Source: Kenanides, L. The Settlement of Asia Minor Refugees from Cappadocia in the villages of (Nea) Aravisou, (Nea) Axou and Neos Milotopos in the province of Yiannitsa. In Greek. Thessaloniki 2008, A, pp.152-153. 

Unknown location 

Guioz-Keuy 1921 

November: Seven priests from Alacam, Bafra and outlying districts were arrested and after being publicly tortured, were crucified at the market place.  

Source: V. Yeghiayan, British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.236.  

– Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. 

– Carroll N. Brown Ph.D and Theodore P. Ion D.C.L. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey since the beginning of the European War. Oxford University Press, New York 1918. 

– Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople: Press of the Patriarchate, 1920. 

– The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. 

– The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. 

– The Exodus: Testimonies from the Central Regions of Pontus. Volume C. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2013. In Greek.  

– Yeghiayan, Vartkes. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. 

– Faltaits, K. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia (Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921. Cosmos 2016

– Puaux, René. La Mort de Smyrne. Édition de la revue des Balkans. Paris 1922.  

– Puaux, René. Les derniers jours de Smyrne. Paris 1923. 

– Central Council of Pontus. Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus. Athens 1922. 

– Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos. Oxford University Press, New York, 1919.


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